Facilitated Communication Training - Select Bibliography

A Bibliography of Written and Video Material About Facilitated Communication Training and Supported Typing

This is a short list of articles, books and DVDs that contain positive or neutral information about the use of communication aids with facilitation.
Annotations on many of the items included can be found on the Syracuse University Institute of Communication and Inclusion website, along with links to most of the videos mentioned.

People who would like to see the other side can find a list of negative articles on the same website -

The list does not include the scores of books by people who started to use communication aids with facilitation or their parents. Some are purely autobiographical, while some include creative writing. If you would like a list of these please email chris.borthwick@annemcdonaldcentre.org.au

Rosemary Crossley, A.M., Ph.D. August 2011

Books and articles on Facitated Communication Training

Allen, B., & Allen, S., 1996, Can the Scientific Method Be Applied to Human Interaction? American Psychologist, 21, 986‐8

Attwood, T. 1992, Movement Disorders and Autism; A Rationale for the Use of Facilitated Communication, Communication, 26, 3,27‐33

Attwood, T., & Remington‐Gurney, J., 1992, Assessment of literacy skill using facilitated communication, in Van Kraayenoord, C., (Ed), A survey of adult literacy provision for people with intellectual disabilities, Schonell Special Education Research Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane

Beck, A., & Pirovano, C., 1996, Facilitated Communicators' Performance on a Task of Receptive Language, Journal of Autism & Developmental Disabilities, 26, 5, 497‐512

Biklen, D., 1993, Communication Unbound, Teachers College Press, Columbia University, New York

Biklen, D., & Duchan, J., 1994, "I am intelligent": The Social Construction of Mental Retardation, Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 19, 3, 173‐184

Biklen, D., Saha, N., & Kliewer, C., 1995, How Teachers Confirm Authorship Of Facilitated Communication, Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 20, 45‐56.

Biklen, D., & Cardinal, D. (eds), 1997, Contested Words, Contested Science, Teachers College Press, Columbia University, New York

Biklen, D., et al, 2005, Autism and the Myth of the Person Alone, New York University Press, New York

Biklen, D. & Burke, J., 2006, Presuming Competence, Equity and Excellence in Education, 39: 166‐175.

Bjarnason, D., 1992, Blondun; Ma laera af andfoetlingum?, Proskahjalp, 2, 14, 17‐25

Borthwick, C. & Crossley, R., 1999, Language and Retardation, Psycholoquy,
[On‐line refereed journal sponsored by the American Psychological Association ‐ APA]

Broderick, A. and Kasa‐Hendrickson, C., 2001, "SAY JUST ONE WORD AT FIRST": The Emergence of Reliable Speech in a Student Labeled With Autism, Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 26(1), 13‐24.

Bundschuh,K & Basler‐Eggen,A , 2000, Abschlussbericht zur Studie, Getutzte Kommunication bei menschen mit scheern Kommunicationsstorwigen, Munich: Bayerischhes Staatsministerium fur Arbeit und Sozialordunung, Familie,
Fauen und Gesundheit.
[English translation ‐ Facilitated Communication for Persons With Severe Communication Problems]

Cardinal, D., Hanson, D., & Wakeham, J., 1996, An investigation of authorship in facilitated communication, Mental Retardation 34, 231‐242.
[Largest-ever validation study involving 43 teenagers with a 74% success rate.]

Crossley, R. & McDonald, A., 1980, Annie’s Coming Out, Penguin Books, Melbourne, Australia

Crossley, R., 1992, Getting the words out: Case Studies in Facilitated Communication Training, Topics in Language Disorders, August 12, 4, 46

Crossley, R., 1997, Sarah: A Case Study in Facilitated Communication Training, European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 1997, 32, 1, 61

Crossley, R., 1997, Speechless, E P Dutton, New York.

Dwyer, J. 1996, Access to Justice for People with Severe Communication Impairment, Australian Journal of Administrative Law, 3, 2, 73‐119

Emerson, A, Grayson A, Griffiths A., 2001, Can’t or Won’t. Evidence relating to authorship in facilitated communication, International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 36, 98‐103.

Ferguson, D., & Horner, R., 1994, Negotiating the facilitated communication maze, Mental Retardation, 32, 4, 305‐307

Goode, G., 1994, Defining facilitated communication in and out of existence: the role of science in the facilitated communication controversy, Mental Retardation, 32, 4, 307‐311

Grant, C., Grayson, A and Boucher, J. 2001, Using Tests of False Belief with Children with Autism: How valid and reliable are they? Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 5, 135‐145

Grayson, A., Emerson, A., Howard‐Jones, P., & O’Neil, L., 2011, Hidden communicative competence: Case study evidence using eye‐tracking and video analysis. Autism, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/1362361310393260.

IDRP — Intellectual Disability Review Panel, 1989, Report to the Director General on the reliability and validity of assisted communication, Office of Intellectual Disability Services, Melbourne, Australia 
[The IDRP tested 6 children, 4 of whom validated their ability to spell with facilitation.]

Janzen‐Wilde, M.L., Duchan, J.F., & Higginbotham, D.J., 1995, Successful use of facilitated communication with an oral child, Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 658‐676

Kasa‐Hendrickson, C., Broderick, A & Hanson, D., 2009, Sorting out Speech: Understanding Multiple Methods of Communication for Persons with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, The Journal of Developmental Processes, Vol. 4(2), 116‐133

Kliewer,C., Biklen, D., & Kasa‐Hendrickson C., 2006, Who May Be Literate? Disability and Resistance to the Cultural Denial of Competence, American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 43, (2), 163–192

Marcus, E. and Shevin, M., 1997, Sorting it out under fire: Our journey. In D. Biklen and D. Cardinal (Eds.) Contested words, contested science: Unraveling the facilitated communication controversy. New York: Teachers College Press.

Mirenda, P., 2008, A Back Door Approach to Autism and AAC. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, Vol. 24 (3), 220–234

Morley, B., 1996, The Apparently Intellectually Handicapped, in Burrows, G., (ed.), Fifth Greek/Australian International Legal and Medical Conference, Crete 1995, Greek/Australian Legal and Medical Conference Ltd. Melbourne
[“The irrefutable fact is that seven of the thirteen patients whom I have examined ... . have eventually become independent of their facilitator.”]

Myles, B., Quinn, C., & Simpson, R., 1994, Student Demonstration of skill acquisition through facilitated communication, Focus on Autistic Behavior, 9, 7‐10

Niemi,J & Karna‐Lin, E., 2002, Grammar and lexicon in Facilitated Communication: A linguistic authorship analysis of a Finnish case, Mental Retardation, 40, 347‐357

Ogletree, B., Hamtil, A., Solberg, L., & Scoby‐Schmelzle, S., 1993, Facilitated Communication; illustration of a naturalistic validation method, Focus on Autistic Behavior, 8, 110

Olney, M., 1995, Reading Between the Lines; A Case Study on Facilitated Communication, Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicap, 20, 1, 57‐65

Queensland Steering Committee on Facilitated Communication Training, 1992 and 1996 Reports on Facilitator Training and Naturalistic Validation, Queensland Department of Family Services (now known as Queensland Department of Communities)

Rubin, S., Biklen, D., Kasa‐Hendrickson, C., Kluth, P., Cardinal, D. N., & Broderick, A., 2001, Independence, participation, and the meaning of intellectual ability, Disability and Society, 16, 425–429.

Sabin, L., & Donellan, A., 1993, An Ethnographic Study of the Process of Facilitated Communication, Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 18, 3, 200‐211

Sheehan, C. & Matuozzi, R. 1996, Investigation of the validity of facilitated communication, Mental Retardation, 34, 94‐107.

Simon, E., Toll, D., & Whitehair, P., 1994, A naturalistic approach to the validation of facilitated communication, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 5, 647‐657

Simpson, R., & Myles, B., 1995, Effectiveness of Facilitated Communication with Children and Youth with Autism, Journal of Special Education, 28, 4, 242‐249

Tehan, G. & Senior, G., 2006, Final Report on Facilitated Communication Project for Disability Services Queensland, University of Southern Queensland

Tuzzi, A., Cemin, M., and Castagna, M., 2004, “Moved deeply I am.” Autistic language in texts produced with FC. Journees Internationals d’Analyse Statistique des Donnees Textuelles, 7, pp. 1–9.

Tuzzi, A., 2009, Grammar and Lexicon in Individuals with Autism: a quantitative analysis of a large Italian corpus. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 47, 373‐385.

Weiss, M., Wagner, S., & Bauman, M., 1996, A case of validated facilitated communication, Mental Retardation, 34, 220‐230.

Zanobini, M., and Scopesi, A., 2001, La comunicazione facilitata in un bambino autistico. Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo, 5, pp. 395‐421

Articles which are relevant to the use of facilitation with people with ASD

Dziuk M.A. et al., 2007) Dyspraxia in Autism: association with motor, social and communicative deficits, Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49: 734‐739
Dawson et al., 2007, The Level and Nature of Autistic Intelligence, Research Report Psychological Science, 18(8), 657‐661
Ashwin et al., 2009, Eagle‐Eyed Visual Acuity: An Experimental Investigation of Enhanced Perception In Autism, Biological Psychiatry 65;17‐ 21.

Some DVDs about people who learnt to communicate by spelling with facilitation.

Film Australia, 1984, Annie’s Coming Out (2010 DVD available from Umbrella Entertainment; feature)

Kasa‐Hendrickson, C., Broderick, A.A., & Biklen, D. (Producers), & Gambell, J. (Director), 2002, Inside the Edge: A Journey to Using Speech through Typing, The Institute on Communication and Inclusion, Syracuse University
[Jamie Burke typing and talking about his emerging speech and independence]

Wurzburg, G. (Producer and Director), 2004, Autism is a World, CNN Productions and State of the Art, Inc.
[Oscar‐nominated documentary about Sue Rubin’s journey to independence.]

Karna‐Lin, E. & Biklen, D. (Producers), 2008, Happy to Know New Things, The Institute on Communication and Inclusion, Syracuse University
[Henna Laukainen typing and speaking in Finnish – subtitled. ]

DeClouette, N. & Biklen, D. (Producers), 2009, Here We Are World – A Conversation Between Friends. The Institute on Communication and Inclusion, Syracuse University
[Shows five adults with ASD who have developed varying levels of independence in typing and speech]

New Ground Publishing Company (Producers), 2010, Kayla’s Voice: Empowering People with Autism (Available on Amazon)

Suzuki, M. & Biklen, D. (Producers), 2010, I Write, so I Am Alive, The Institute on Communication and Inclusion, Syracuse University
[Naoki Higashida spelling and typing independently in Japanese – subtitled].

Wurzburg, G. (Producer and Director), 2011, Wretches and Jabberers – Stories from the Road, State of the Art, Inc.
[Feature‐length documentary about people with ASD who started to type with facilitation. Chosen by the Autism Society of America as the flagship for Autism Week 2011.]

Here We Are World and other videos of people who learnt to communicate by typing with facilitation but can now type without physical support can be viewed on the Institute on Communication and Inclusion website:


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